Research suggests that trees don’t just compete for survival, but also cooperate and share resources using underground fungi networks. A forest has an amazing ability to communicate and behave like a single organism — an ecosystem.

The fungi and the trees are in a mutually beneficial relationship: the fungi cannot photosynthesize, as they have no access to light and no chlorophyll. So they get a type of sugar produced in photosynthesis and carbon from the trees. In return for sugar and carbon, fungi release nutrients such as phosphorous and nitrogen, as well as water, to the trees. Furthermore, the fungi will connect one tree to another through their network, which allows them to defend themselves more effectively.

Trees that get attacked by bugs, for instance, release chemical signals into the fungi. Neighboring trees pick up these signals and increase their own resistance to the threat.

In this ecosystem the older trees, also called “hub trees”, play a crucial role. They are better connected through the fungi network and their excess carbon helps the development of seedlings. These hub trees also help forests adapt to climate change. They’ve lived for a long time and lived through fluctuations in climate. They curate that memory in the DNA. The DNA is encoded and has adapted through mutations to this environment. So that genetic code carries the code for variable climates coming up.

We must slow the rate of deforestation, preserve older trees and maintain diversity instead of going for “simplified plantations” of only one or two species. Forests are huge carbon storers, they’re our biggest assets against climate change.

Please watch this brief 3½ minutes video.

Lyrics in Tamil

படம்: அன்னை
பாடியவர்: சந்திரபாபு
பாடல் வரிகள்: கண்ணதாசன்

புத்தியுள்ள மனிதரெல்லாம் வெற்றி காண்பதில்லை
வெற்றி பெற்ற மனிதரெல்லாம் புத்திசாலி இல்லை

பணம் இருக்கும் மனிதரிடம் மனம் இருப்பதில்லை
மனம் இருக்கும் மனிதரிடம் பணம் இருப்பதில்லை

பணம் படைத்த வீட்டினிலே வந்ததெல்லாம் சொந்தம்
பணம் இல்லாத மனிதருக்கு சொந்தமெல்லாம் துன்பம்

புத்தியுள்ள மனிதரெல்லாம் வெற்றி காண்பதில்லை
வெற்றி பெற்ற மனிதரெல்லாம் புத்திசாலி இல்லை

பருவம் வந்த அனைவருமே காதல் கொள்வதில்லை
காதல் கொண்ட அனைவருமே மணம் முடிப்பதில்லை

மணம் முடித்த அனைவருமே சேர்ந்து வாழ்வதில்லை
சேர்ந்த வாழும் அனைவருமே சேர்ந்து போவதில்லை

புத்தியுள்ள மனிதரெல்லாம் வெற்றி காண்பதில்லை
வெற்றி பெற்ற மனிதரெல்லாம் புத்திசாலி இல்லை

கனவு காணும் மனிதனுக்கு நினைப்பதெல்லாம் கனவு
அவன் காணுகின்ற கனவினிலே வருவதெல்லாம் உறவு

அவன் கனவில் அவள் வருவாள், அவனை பார்த்து சிரிப்பாள்
அவள் கனவில் யார் வருவார்? யாரை பார்த்து அணைப்பாள்?

புத்தியுள்ள மனிதரெல்லாம் வெற்றி காண்பதில்லை
வெற்றி பெற்ற மனிதரெல்லாம் புத்திசாலி இல்லை



The philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was the first person to classify people into fixed races according to skin color. To him, skin color was equated with character. People of darker-colored races were inferior and destined to serve those of lighter-colored races. The linking of blackness with otherness and inferiority was one of the most powerful and destructive intellectual constructs of that time.

By early 19th century, dark colored people signified inferiority and the prospect of profit through slavery, while the possession of lightly pigmented or “white” skin became the norm from which others deviated. The rise of Social Darwinism in the late 19th century further reinforced the notion that the superiority of the white race was part of the natural order because certain “stocks” were more highly evolved and culturally superior because of their “fitness” and “adaptations.” That such ideas continue in the 21st century is viewed with disbelief by many scientists and thinkers, who cite evidence that biological races don’t exist and that races are “only” social constructs. Despite genetic evidence confirming the nonexistence of races, belief in the inherent superiority and inferiority of people affect many parts of the world.

What causes this variation in skin color?

Because of the strong correlation between pigmentation and amount of sunlight, biologists suggest that color differences are a result of natural selection imposed by different light levels in different places. This has been observed when light-skinned people get darker by tanning or when exposed to more sun.

When dark populations of humans moved into the Middle East and Europe, they evolved lighter skin color. But when those populations colonized Australia, skin color got dark again. This happened too, when humans moved from northern Asia across the Bering Strait and down into the Americas: those populations that reached Central and South America re-evolved dark pigmentation.

A person’s skin color is determined by the amount of melanin in their skin. Its purpose is to protect the skin from the Sun’s harmful UV rays. Lighter skin tones in the northern hemisphere allow more UV rays to penetrate the skin to help produce right amount of vitamin D that the body needs. The body must strike a careful balance to make sure it receives just enough UV radiation to make the essential vit. D, while avoiding overexposure that can lead to skin cancer.

In northern coastal areas, such as in Alaska and Canada, the Inuits tend to have darker skin than one might expect. This is likely from a diet rich in seafood that provides all the vit. D their bodies need. As a result, their skin produces more melanin making them darker.

Today, people of all ethnicities and nationalities travel and live all over the world. Their individual bodies adapt to conditions where they live over time, and they pass on these traits to their children. Thus, the myriad skin tones we see around us now.


Why do we sometimes fall into black holes of depression, anxiety and self-doubt? And can we change the way we feel?

Dr. David Burns MD, Stanford University School of Medicine and a clinical psychiatrist, is the author of the best selling book ‘Feeling Good’. He says that anxiety, guilt, pessimism, procrastination, low self-esteem, and other black holes of depression can be cured without drugs. He talks about scientifically proven techniques that immediately lift our spirits and help us develop a positive outlook on life. His book has helped people who were on the verge of suicide. His book talks about the many options available for coming out of depression and look forward to living.

– Recognize what causes our mood swings
– Nip negative feelings in the bud
– Deal with guilt
– Handle hostility and criticism
– Overcome addiction to love and approval
– Build self-esteem, and
– Feel good everyday

Please watch the 17-minutes video. You will like the entertaining way he talks, And, like me if you liked what he says, get this book.

Disclaimer: I am not promoting this book. Hence, not posting a link. I bought this book from Amazon for a little less than $4.00.


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